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Office of Mental Health

Kendra's Law: Final Report on the Status of Assisted Outpatient Treatment
Characteristics of AOT Recipients

Incidence of Hospitalization, Homelessness, Arrest and Incarceration

Characteristics of AOT Recipients

The data presented below on the characteristics of AOT recipients are for 2,745 individuals for whom data were available in the OMH evaluation database at the time of this report's preparation. (The time frames associated with paper-based data collection are such that the number of individuals represented in the evaluation database is less than the total number of individuals who have received AOT.)


Table 3 displays data on the age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status and living situation of AOT recipients.On average, persons in AOT are 371/2 years of age and two-thirds (66%) are male. Most are unmarried and are living in independent settings in the community. The racial and ethnic composition of the population receiving court-ordered treatment is diverse: 42% of AOT recipients are Black, 34% are White and 21% are Hispanic.

Table 3
Characteristics of AOT Recipients
All AOT Recipients
Mean Number of Years
37.5 Years
Male 66%
Female 34%
Black (non-Hispanic) 42%
White (non-Hispanic) 34%
Hispanic 21%
Asian 2%
Other 1%
Marital Status
Single, never married 75%
Divorced/Widowed 17%
Married/Cohabitating w/significant other or domestic partner 8%
Current Living Situation
Living alone 13%
Living with others 38%
Supervised Living 37%
Other 12%
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia or Psychotic Disorder 71%
Coexisting Alcohol and/or Substance Abuse Disorder 52%
* These proportions are similar to those observed for all adults receiving intensive case management and Assertive Community Treatment in urban areas.


Most individuals (71%) receiving an AOT court order have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thirteen percent have a bipolar disorder diagnosis. More than half (52%) of AOT individuals are reported as having a co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse condition with mental illness as a primary diagnosis.

Incidence of Hospitalization, Homelessness, Arrest and Incarceration

Table 4 summarizes the incidence of hospitalizations, homelessness, arrest and incarceration for persons in AOT prior to court-ordered treatment. In the three years prior to the court order, 97% of individuals had at least one psychiatric hospitalization. On average, these individuals had been hospitalized approximately three times during that period with some individuals having had as many as 13 hospitalizations. Nineteen percent of individuals had experienced at least one episode of homelessness in the three years preceding their court order. Thirty percent were arrested at least one time in the three years prior to AOT. These individuals had as many as ten arrests during that time. Twenty-three percent were incarcerated at least once in the three years prior to their court order. Some individuals had as many as ten incarcerations in those three years.

Table 4
Incidence of Hospitalization, Homelessness, Arrest and Incarceration Three Years Prior to Issuance of Court-Order
Psychiatric Hospitalizations
Mean number is last 36 months 3.08
Percent hospitalized (at least one episode) 97%
Number of admissions (range) 0-13
Homeless Episodes
Mean number in last 36 months 0.27
Percent homeless (at least one episode) 19%
Number of episodes (range) 0-6
Mean number in last 36 months 0.52
Percent arrested (at least one episode) 30%
Number of arrests (range) 0-10
Mean number in last 36 months 0.35
Percent arrested (at least one episode) 23%
Number of incarcerations (range) 0-10

When compared with a similar population of mental health service recipients,3 AOT recipients were twice as likely to have had a previous episode of homelessness and 50% more likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system prior to their court order. In addition, AOT recipients were 58% more likely to have a co-occurring substance abuse problem.


3 OMH derives its estimates of the number of people served annually by the public mental health system from its Patient Characteristics Survey (PCS). The PCS, which is administered every other year, gathers information about the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons receiving mental health services in programs operated, funded, or certified by OMH during a one-week period. The data presented in this section are derived from the 2003 PCS, which is the most recent available.

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